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Describe Classification of Systems

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 Systems may be classified as follows:

a) Formal or Informal
b) Physical or Abstract
c) Open or Closed
d) Manual or Automated.

a) A Formal System is one that is planned in advance and is used according to
schedule. In this system policies and procedures are documented well in advance.
A real life example is to conduct a scheduled meeting at the end of every month in
which agenda of the meeting has already been defined well in advance.
An Informal System is the system that is not described by procedures. It is not
According to a schedule. It works on as need basis. For example, Sales order
processing system through telephone calls.

b) Physical Systems are tangible entities that may be static or dynamic.
Computer Systems, Vehicles, Buildings etc. are examples of physical systems.
Abstract systems are conceptual entities.
Example: Company

c) Open System is a system within its environment. It receives input from
environment and provides output to environment.
Example: Any real life system, Information System, Organization etc.

Closed System: It is isolated from environment influences. It operates on factors
within the System itself. It is also defined as a System that includes a feedback
loop, a control element and feedback performance standard.

d) Manual and Automated systems: The system, which does not require human
intervention is called Automated system. In this system, the whole process is
Example: Traffic control system for metropolitan cities.
The system, which requires human intervention, is called a Manual System.
Example: Face to face information centre at places like Railway stations etc.

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