First Generation of Computer (1940 - 1956)

J.P  Eckert and J.W Maischy invested the first  successful  electronic computer called ENIAC, ENIAC stand for electronic integrated and calculator .

It made use of vaccum tubes which  are  the  only electronical component available during those days and require a large cooling system.

The computer were very costly and very big in size, weight about 30 tones and consumed large amount of energy. Very less efficiency and limited programming capabilities. 

Punch cards were used to take inputs. Not reliable and constant maintenance is required.

Commerce Overview   Commerce  refers to the exchange of goods and services between producers and consumers . It encompasses various activities such as buying, selling ,and trading , aimed  as satisfying human needs and wants. Commerce play a vital role in the economic system by facilitating the movements of goods and services from producers to consumers .

 The sole trade organisation (also called proprietorship) is the oldest form of organisation and the most common form of organisation for small business even today.

It is the simplest and easiest to form. What is required is that an individual decides and arranges the necessary capital. 

Required capital maybe mobilised  from his own savings or may be borrowed from friends and relatives .

The business may be carried either in a portion of his own residence or in a rented building. The business generally manages the business on his own .

He enjoy all the profits earned by the business ,so in case of loss naturally he has to bear the full burnt of it.

 The five basic operation that computer performs are accepting data as input , storage of these data , processing of data ,outputting of information and process control 



The key features of combinatorial problems

Combinatorial problems are problems that involve finding the number of ways to arrange or select objects from a given set, often under certain constraints. Some key features of combinatorial problems included:

  1. The "n-queens" problem: Place n queens on an nxn chessboard such that no two queens are attacking each other (i.e., no two queens are in the same row, column, or diagonal). Find the number of ways to do this.
  2. The "knapsack" problem: Given a list of items, each with a weight and a value, find the combination of items with the maximum total value that can be carried in a knapsack with a fixed weight limit.
  3. The "traveling salesman" problem: Given a list of cities and the distances between them, find the shortest possible route that visits each city exactly once and returns to the starting city.

Examples of combinatorial problems include:

  1. Constraints: There may be certain constraints on the arrangements or selections, such as the number of objects that can be chosen or the order in which the objects must be placed.
  2. Combinations or permutations: The problem may involve finding the number of combinations (unordered selections) or permutations (ordered arrangements) of the objects.
  3. A finite set of objects: There is a finite number of objects that can be arranged or selected in different ways.