Explain the following terms in the context of computer networks: (i) Packet switching (ii) Half Duplex transmission (iii) Need of computer networks (iv) Channel of data transmission

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 (i) Packet Switching:

Packet switching is a networking technology where data is divided into small packets before transmission. Each packet contains a portion of the data, along with information such as the source and destination addresses. These packets are then transmitted independently across the network to reach the destination. Upon arrival, the packets are reassembled in the correct order to reconstruct the original data. Packet switching is more efficient than circuit switching as it allows multiple packets from different sources to be transmitted simultaneously over the same network, improving data transfer speed and network utilization.

(ii) Half Duplex Transmission:

In half duplex transmission, data can be transmitted in both directions, but not simultaneously. Devices can either send or receive data, but not both at the same time. When a device is sending data, it cannot receive data, and vice versa. Walkie-talkies and CB radios are common examples of half duplex communication. This mode of transmission is often used in situations where the communication channel alternates between transmitting and receiving data, allowing for a two-way communication link even though it is not simultaneous.

(iii) Need of Computer Networks:

Computer networks are essential for several reasons, including:

Resource Sharing: Networks allow sharing of resources such as printers, files, and internet connections among multiple users, enhancing efficiency and reducing costs.


Reliability: Networks provide redundancy and backup options. If one node or connection fails, data can be rerouted through alternate paths, ensuring continuous operation.

Remote Access: Networks enable remote access to data and resources, allowing users to connect to the network from different locations, enhancing flexibility and collaboration.

Centralized Data Management: Networks facilitate centralized data storage and management, making it easier to back up, secure, and update data.

Communication: Networks enable communication through email, messaging, video conferencing, and other collaborative tools, fostering seamless communication among users.

(iv) Channel of Data Transmission:

A channel of data transmission refers to the medium through which data is sent from one location to another in a computer network. Various types of channels are used in networking, including wired and wireless mediums:

Wired Channels: These include physical cables such as twisted-pair cables, coaxial cables, and fiber-optic cables. Wired channels provide reliable and high-speed data transmission and are commonly used in Ethernet networks.


Wireless Channels: Wireless channels use radio waves, microwaves, or infrared signals for data transmission. Wireless channels offer mobility and flexibility, making them ideal for devices like smartphones, laptops, and Wi-Fi-enabled devices.

The choice of the transmission channel depends on factors like distance, data transfer rate, reliability, and cost, and it varies based on the specific requirements of the network.

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