Explain the following with the help of an example/diagram, if needed: (i) Proprietary software (ii) Scheduling in the context of project management software (iii) Mail merge in MS-Word (iv) Creating tables using a DBMS.

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 (i) Proprietary Software:

Proprietary software refers to software that is owned by an individual or a company and is protected by copyright. Users are required to purchase a license or pay a fee to use the software. The source code of proprietary software is not freely available, and users do not have the freedom to modify, share, or distribute it without the software owner's permission.

Example: Microsoft Office Suite (e.g., MS-Word, MS-Excel, MS-PowerPoint)

- Microsoft Office is proprietary software developed by Microsoft. Users need to purchase a license to use applications like MS-Word. The source code is not accessible or modifiable by users.

(ii) Scheduling in the Context of Project Management Software:

Scheduling in project management software involves creating a timeline or a Gantt chart to plan, organize, and manage tasks and activities within a project. It helps in visualizing project timelines, dependencies, and task assignments.

Example: Gantt Chart in Project Management Software

- A Gantt chart is a common scheduling tool used in project management software. It displays tasks and their durations over time, allowing project managers to assign resources, set deadlines, and track progress. Here's a simplified example:


| Task        | Duration | Start Date | End Date   |


| Task 1      | 5 days   | 01/10/2023 | 01/14/2023 |

| Task 2      | 3 days   | 01/15/2023 | 01/17/2023 |

| Task 3      | 7 days   | 01/18/2023 | 01/24/2023 |


(iii) Mail Merge in MS-Word:

Mail merge in MS-Word allows users to create personalized documents (such as letters, envelopes, or labels) by merging a template document with a data source, such as an Excel spreadsheet or a database. It automates the process of generating multiple personalized documents.

Example: Mail Merge in MS-Word

1. Step 1: Prepare Data Source:

   - Create an Excel spreadsheet with columns like "Name," "Address," and "City."

2. Step 2: Create Document:

   - In MS-Word, create a document template with placeholders like `<<Name>>`, `<<Address>>`, and `<<City>>`.

3. Step 3: Initiate Mail Merge:

   - Go to the "Mailings" tab, select "Start Mail Merge," and choose the type of document (e.g., Letters).

4. Step 4: Select Recipients:

   - Choose "Use an Existing List" and select the prepared Excel spreadsheet as the data source.

5. Step 5: Insert Merge Fields:

   - Click "Insert Merge Field" to insert fields from the data source into the document.

6. Step 6: Complete the Merge:

   - Click "Finish & Merge" and choose "Print Documents" or "Edit Individual Documents" to generate personalized documents for each record in the data source.

(iv) Creating Tables Using a DBMS:

Creating tables in a Database Management System (DBMS) involves defining the structure of a database table, specifying the columns and their data types. Each row in the table represents a record, and columns represent different attributes of the records.

Example: Creating a Table in SQL (Structured Query Language)


-- SQL Query to create a table named 'Employees'

CREATE TABLE Employees (


    FirstName VARCHAR(50),

    LastName VARCHAR(50),

    Department VARCHAR(50),

    Salary DECIMAL(10, 2)



In this example, a table named `Employees` is created with columns `EmployeeID`, `FirstName`, `LastName`, `Department`, and `Salary`. The data types of the columns (`INT`, `VARCHAR`, `DECIMAL`) define the type of data each column can hold. The `PRIMARY KEY` constraint indicates that the `EmployeeID` column is the primary key for the table, ensuring uniqueness of each record.

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