Define the following terms in the context of programming with thehelp of an example for each: (i) Loop- statement (ii) N-dimensional Arrays (iii) Logical operators (iv) Relational Operators

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 Certainly! Let's define each term in the context of programming with examples:

(i) Loop Statement:

A loop statement is used in programming to execute a block of code repeatedly as long as a specified condition is true. It helps in automating repetitive tasks and iterating over data structures.

Example in Python (Using a `for` loop):


# Printing numbers from 1 to 5 using a for loop

for i in range(1, 6):



In this example, the `for` loop iterates through the range of numbers from 1 to 5 and prints each number. The loop will execute 5 times, printing the numbers 1 to 5.

(ii) N-dimensional Arrays:

N-dimensional arrays, often denoted as N-D arrays, are data structures that can hold multiple elements. A one-dimensional array is a list, a two-dimensional array is a matrix, and arrays with more than two dimensions are called N-dimensional arrays.

Example in Python (Using NumPy for a 2D array):


import numpy as np

# Creating a 2D array (matrix) using  Num Py

matrix = np. array([[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]])

# Accessing elements in a 2D array

print(matrix[1, 2])  # Output: 6 (row 1, column 2)


In this example, `matrix` is a 2D array containing two rows and three columns. You can access individual elements using row and column indices.

(iii) Logical Operators:

Logical operators are used to perform logical operations on Boolean values (`True` or `False`). Common logical operators include AND (`and`), OR (`or`), and NOT (`not`).

Example in Python (Using logical operators):


# Logical AND operator

x = True

y = False

result  _ and = x and y  # Result: False

# Logical OR operator

result_or = x or y  # Result: True

# Logical NOT operator

result_not = not x  # Result: False


In this example, the `and` operator returns `False` if any of the operands is `False`. The `or` operator returns `True` if at least one operand is `True`. The `not` operator negates the Boolean value.

(iv) Relational Operators:

Relational operators are used to compare two values or expressions. They return a Boolean value (`True` or `False`) based on the comparison result. Common relational operators include equal to (`==`), not equal to (`!=`), greater than (`>`), less than (`<`), greater than or equal to (`>=`), and less than or equal to (`<=`).

Example in Python (Using relational operators):


# Relational operators

a = 5

b = 10

# Equal to

print(a == b)  # Output: False

# Not equal to

print(a != b)  # Output: True

# Greater than

print(a > b)   # Output: False

# Less than

print(a < b)   # Output: True

# Greater than or equal to

print(a >= b)  # Output: False

# Less than or equal to

print(a <= b)  # Output: True


In this example, the relational operators compare the values of `a` and `b`, returning Boolean results based on the specified conditions.

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